Piyush P Mar 17, 2024
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10 Best Data Science Programming Languages

The ever-growing volume of data presents both challenges and opportunities. Data science extracts knowledge and insights from this data and is crucial for informed decision-making across various industries. Programming languages empower data scientists to wrangle, analyse, and visualise data, unlocking its hidden potential. 

This blog explores the top 10 programming languages that have become instrumental tools for success in the data science landscape. Whether you're a student aspiring to enter the field or a seasoned professional looking to expand your skill set, mastering these languages can open doors to exciting opportunities in data science.

You may also like: Guide to Data Science Career Path

Best Data Science Programming Languages

Following are the top 10 data science programming languages;

  • Python 
  • R
  • SQL
  • Julia
  • Scala
  • JavaScript
  • Java
  • SAS
  • C++

The Big Three 

The data science landscape boasts diverse languages, but three titans consistently rise to the top: Python, R, and SQL. Each offers unique strengths, making them essential tools in the data scientist's arsenal.

1. Python 

Python reigns supreme as the most popular and versatile language. Its clear, readable syntax makes it approachable for beginners and veterans alike. But Python's true power lies in its vast ecosystem of libraries. Libraries like NumPy provide efficient tools for numerical computations, while pandas excel in data manipulation and analysis. 

For building and deploying machine learning models, sci-kit-learn stands as a comprehensive toolkit. This rich collection of libraries allows Python to seamlessly handle every stage of the data science workflow, from data wrangling to visualisation.

Check out: Benefits of Using Python for Data Science

2. R

On the other hand, R shines in the realm of statistics and data visualisation. Developed by statisticians for statisticians, R offers a wealth of built-in functions and powerful packages specifically designed for statistical analysis. 

The famed ggplot2 package enables the creation of stunningly customisable visualisations, helping to uncover hidden patterns and relationships within the data. R's popularity in academia and research is undeniable, with a vibrant community constantly developing innovative packages and furthering statistical frontiers.

3. SQL

Finally, no discussion of data science languages is complete without mentioning SQL. While not a general-purpose language like Python or R, SQL is the indispensable bridge between data scientists and the vast data repositories in relational databases. 

SQL empowers you to efficiently retrieve, manipulate, and analyse data from these databases. Whether you're dealing with customer information, financial records, or social media data, mastering SQL grants you direct access to the lifeblood of many data science projects.

Know more: Best SQL Certifications to Boost Your Career

Rising Stars 

The data science landscape constantly evolves, with new languages emerging to address specific needs. Here, we explore three rising stars that are gaining significant traction:

4. Julia

This young, dynamic language is rapidly carving a niche with its exceptional speed and performance. Julia boasts a syntax similar to Python, making it approachable for those with existing programming knowledge. 

But unlike Python, Julia is compiled, meaning it translates directly into machine code for blazing-fast execution. This makes Julia ideal for computationally intensive tasks like machine learning and scientific computing. Its growing community and rich ecosystem of packages suggest Julia has the potential to become a major player in the data science world.

5. Scala

With its powerful features and ability to handle large-scale data processing, Scala attracts data scientists working with massive datasets. Built on top of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), Scala offers strong object-oriented programming capabilities and seamless integration with existing Java libraries. 

The Spark framework, a popular platform for distributed computing, leverages Scala's strengths, making it a go-to choice for extensive data analysis. As the volume and complexity of data continue to grow, Scala's ability to handle large-scale processing is likely to solidify its position as a rising star.

6. JavaScript

While traditionally associated with web development, JavaScript increasingly finds its way into the data science toolkit. The rise of powerful JavaScript libraries like TensorFlow.js and PyScript blurs the lines between web development and data science. 

These libraries allow you to build and deploy machine learning models directly within web browsers, enabling real-time data analysis and interactive visualisations. With its vast developer base and ubiquity in web browsers, JavaScript's potential impact on data science visualisation and interactive applications is undeniable.

Established Languages 

While the "big three" and rising stars dominate current conversations, some established languages remain crucial players in data science.

7. Java

Once a dominant force in data science, Java remains a valuable asset due to its robust object-oriented structure and mature libraries. Its historical dominance in enterprise applications makes it a natural fit for integrating data science projects into existing Java-based infrastructure. 

While Java might not be the most beginner-friendly language, its stability and extensive libraries, like Weka for machine learning, make it a strong choice for building large-scale, production-ready data science pipelines, especially within organisations with established Java environments.

Learn more: Top Skills to be a Java Developer

8. SAS

A pioneer in statistical analysis software, SAS still holds a niche within specific industries like pharmaceuticals and finance. Its user-friendly interface and industry-specific compliance features make it popular for regulatory reporting and clinical trial analysis tasks. 

While not as flexible as Python or R for general-purpose data manipulation, SAS offers a comprehensive suite of domain-specific tools and functions. It is a valuable asset for data science tasks within highly regulated sectors.

9. C++

Although not as widely used in data science as Python or R, C++ holds a special place for computationally intensive tasks. Its speed and efficiency, due to its compiled nature, make it ideal for situations where performance is paramount. 

C++ libraries like Eigen for linear algebra and OpenCV for computer vision offer powerful tools for specific data science applications. While its steeper learning curve might deter beginners, C++ remains a relevant language for computationally demanding problems in data science.


A robust numerical computing environment, MATLAB has been a decades-old mainstay in scientific computing and engineering. While not as versatile as Python for general data science tasks, MATLAB offers a wealth of specialised toolboxes for tasks like signal processing, control systems, and image analysis. 

Its user-friendly interface and strong visualisation capabilities make it popular in academia and research, particularly in fields like engineering and physics, where these functionalities are crucial.


In conclusion, the data science landscape offers a diverse toolbox of languages. Mastering the right one unlocks the potential hidden within your data. Consider your project's goals, existing skills, and industry trends when choosing. With the knowledge gleaned from this exploration, embark on your data science odyssey and transform information into powerful insights!


Microsoft Azure Certified Data Science Trainer

Piyush P is a Microsoft-Certified Data Scientist and Technical Trainer with 12 years of development and training experience. He is now part of Edoxi Training Institute's expert training team and imparts technical training on Microsoft Azure Data Science. While being a certified trainer of Microsoft Azure, he seeks to increase his data science and analytics efficiency.